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Final Answers
© 2000-2018   Gérard P. Michon, Ph.D.

Strong Nuclear Force
Quarks, Gluons & Asymptotic Freedom

 Paul Dirac
Quarks have spin  ½,  don't they?
Paul-Adrien Dirac  (1966)
 

Related articles:

Related Links  (Outside this Site)

A strength test for the strong forceSarah Charley  (Symmetry, 2017-03-10)
Who proposed the  color  charge?   (StackExchange, 2017-07-12)
Fundamental forces  by  Rod Nave  (Hyperphysics).

Wikipedia :   Strong interactions   |   Quarks   |   Gluons   |   Color charge   |   Asymptotic_freedom

The Quark Model (11:55)  by  Murray Gell-Mann   (1990).
The Strong Nuclear Force (5:05)  by  Don Lincoln   (Fermilab, 2016-05-24).

 
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Strong  Nuclear  Force   (Color  Interaction)

 Yoichiro Nambu
(2018-06-27)  The Birth of Color   (1966)
Preludes to  quantum chromdynamics.

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

Yoichiro Nambu (1921-2015)   |   Moo-Young Han (1934-2016)   |   Oscar Greenberg (1932-)


(2018-07-18)  Isospin   (Isotopic Spin)
It resembles  (quantized)  spin  in a  disembodied  Hilbert space.

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

Isospin


(2018-08-11)  Bootstrap Theory   (1961)
Nuclear Democracy :  No hadron is more elementary than any other...

When Gell-Mann later introduced quarks as constituents of all observable hadrons, p; he remarked in jest that the hadronic bootstrap principle still holds:  No  observable  hadron is more elementary than any other  (vacuously so,  since none of them are elementary).  Gell-Mann liked the bootstrap principle but remarked that it need not be confined to a purported opposition between QFT and dispersion methods  (S-matrix theory).

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

S-Matrix   |   Bootstrap model (1961)   |   Geoffrey Chew (1924-;  Ph.D. 1948)   |   Steve Frautschi (1933-)
New discoveries using bootstrap  by  Natalie Wolchover  (Quanta, 2017-02-23).
 
The bootstrap theory (2:20)  by  Murray Gell-Mann  (1998).

 Daharmachakra
(2018-06-23)  The  8  Gell-Mann  Matrices
Traceless  and  Hermitian.  The  eightfold way  (1961).  Celtic pattern, courtesy of Neil Sloane

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Gell-Mann had tried to brute-force his way into a suitable group with up to 7 generators during his 1959-60 stay at the  Collège de France,  especially in the fall of 1959. 

In the Fall of 1960,  Dick Block  (Richard Earl Block,  b. 1931,  Ph.D. 1956)  was a young assistant professor of mathematics at Caltech,  who had recently completed his Ph.D. dissertation on Lie Algebras at  Chicago,  under A. Adrian Albert (1905-1972).  Block pointed out to Gell-Mann that he was re-inventing the wheel:  The problem was about simple Lie groups in canonical form and the solution was well-known...

Therefrom came Gell-Mann's interest in SU(3) which  worked beutifully  [sic].  Gell-Mann was the first to call  gluons  the  8  vector bosons associated to the above generators  (the word itself had been introduced by  Edward Teller (1908-2003)  in an unrelated context).

Yuval Ne'eman (1925-2006)  also came to the same conclusion around the same time,  as he obtained his Ph.D. under Abdus Salam (1926-1996) at  Imperial College London  (Ne'eman was  military attaché  at the nearby Israeli embassy).

The discovery of the  W-,  in February 1964,  can be construed as the experimental confirmation of  SU(3)  symmetry in hadrons.  Both Gell-Mann and Ne'eman were involved.  This paved the way for the  quark  proposal shortly thereafter.

Noble Eightfold Path (Buddhism)   |   Gell-Mann matrices
Groping for SU(3) (4:02)  by  Murray Gell-Mann  (1998).
Most-Cited Rewritten Eightfold-Way Paper of 1962 (3:53)  by  Murray Gell-Mann  (1998).
 
Numericana :   Pauli matrices   |   Laws of Nature

 Murray Gell-Mann
(2018-06-19)  Quantum  Chromdynamics   (QCD)
SU(3):  The unbroken symmetry of  color charges.

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

Murray Gell-Mann (1929-)   |   Harald Fritzsch (1943-)   |   George Zweig (1937-)


(2018-06-19)  Asymptotic  Freedom
The  strong force  vanishes at very small distances.

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

David Gross (1941-)   |   H. David Politzer (1949-)   |   Frank Wilczek (1951-)   |   Nobel 2004
 
Asymptotic freedom (2:03)  by  Murray Gell-Mann  (1998).
Quantum Chromodynamics (11:45)  by  David Gross  (2014-07-24).
Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (28:25)  by  David Gross   2009-04-29).

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