home | index | units | counting | geometry | algebra | trigonometry & functions | calculus
analysis | sets & logic | number theory | recreational | misc | nomenclature & history | physics

Final Answers
© 2000-2019 Gérard P. Michon, Ph.D.

Matter  &  Antimatter

 P.A.M Dirac  
The mathematician finds interesting the
same rules which Nature has chosen
Paul Dirac  (1902-1984)  in 1939.

Related articles on this site:

Related Links (Outside this Site)

5 mysteries of antimatter  (New Scientist).
10 things about antimatter  by  Diana Kwon  (Symmetry, 2015-04-28).
Antimatter  Institute of Physics  (IOP).

Wikipedia :   Antiparticle   |   Antimatter

Videos :   Why the anti-world matters (59:41)  by  Tara Shears   (RI, 2013).
The Matter of Antimatter (1:39:20)  by  Brian Green et al.  (WSF, 2018-06-06).


Matter and Antimatter

(2018-08-02)     Klein-Gordon Equation  (1926)
In 1925,  Schrödinger chose to pursue his  nonrelativist equation  instead.

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

Before it was even put forth by Klein and Gordon,  the very idea of a  second-order  wave equation,  albeit relatistically invariant,  had been abandonned in 1925 by Schrödinger,  who chose to pursue his own  first-order  nonrelativistic equation  instead.

On the same physical grounds,  Dirac,  Heisenberg and Pauli rejected a second-order equation too.  In a letter to Dirac dated 21 December 1926,  Pauli's Hungarian assistant  (Johann Kudar)  said that he regarded the relativistic wave equation of  second  order with much suspicion.

Soon,  Dirac would come up with a  first-order  equation whose solutions also satisfy the second-order one.  In so doing,  he would invent  antimatter...

Relativistic wave equations   |   Klein-Gordon equation (1926)
Oskar Klein (1894-1977)   |   Walter Gordon (1893-1939)

(2018-06-25)   Dirac's equation   (1928)
The relativistic first-order wave equation which predicted  antimatter.

Dirac approaches the problem of  linearizing  the wave equation from a purely mathematical standpoint.

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

Dirac equation   |   Paul Dirac (1902-1984)
The Genesis of Dirac's Relativistic Theory of Electrons  by  Helge Kragh  (1981).

(2018-06-25)   Positrons discovered in cosmic rays  (1932-08-02)
Carl Anderson (1905-1991).

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

Positron   |   Carl Anderson (1905-1991)

(2018-07-07)   Crossing Symmetry   (Goldberger & Gell-Mann,  1954)
An antiparticle is exactly like a particle going backward in time.

That idea was first formulated by  Ernst Stueckelberg.  Feynman worked it into his  path-integral  formulation of quantum mechanics.

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

Olivier Costa de Beauregard  and the dubious case for  retrograde causality.

Crossing   |   Marvin Leonard "Murph" Goldberger (1922-2014)   |   Murray Gell-Mann (1929-)
Solving the Impossible in QFT (15:20)  by  Matt O'Dowd   (PBS Space Time, 2017-07-12).
Wheeler's One-Electron Universe (12:49)  by  Matt O'Dowd  (PBS Space Time, 2017-08-10).

(2018-08-01)     Original Excess of Matter over Antimatter
Matter particles exceed antimatter particles by only one part per billion.

Most extant particles are photons, which are identical to their antiparticles.

 Come back later, we're
 still working on this one...

Antimatter Darkmatter Documentary (2:10:58)    First half with  Art McDonald  (2018-06-11).
Anti-Matter and Quantum Relativity (16:11)  by  Matt O'Dowd  (PBS Space Time, 2017-06-21).

visits since December 10, 2018
 (c) Copyright 2000-2019, Gerard P. Michon, Ph.D.